What Is Colon Cancer Surgery Cost In India?

What Is Colon Cancer Surgery Cost In India?


The colon or rectum is defined as the final part of the digestive tract. Colon cancer is also considered colorectal cancer. When the cells in the colon become abnormal and grow out of control, it leads to colon cancer. 

The symptoms, treatment and outlook for colon cancer depend on the stage of this disease and when it is first diagnosed. Colon cancer mostly occurs when the growth form on the inner lining of the colon or rectum.

 In the present era, colon cancer can be controlled through surgery, radiotherapy, and some drug treatments. According to a study, the AAR rate for colon cancer in men is 4.1 in 100000 and 3.9 in 100000 in women in the Indian subcontinent.

What is Colon cancer?

A type of cancer that begins in the large intestine when the mutations occur in the cell DNA of the colon is known as colon cancer. The cell DNA in the colon starts to grow abnormally and continues to divide, and the cells accumulate together to form a tumour and become cancerous. 

These cancerous cells grow rapidly and destroy normal tissues and create obstacles to the body’s normal functioning. According to the research, colon cancer develops when tumours grow abnormally in the large intestine.

What causes colon cancer?

Generally, the body cells grow and divide and help in healthy functioning. But when this process goes out of control, and the cells start to grow abnormally and continue to divide, that leads to colon cancer. The Cancer cells ultimately develop When the cells lining the colon and rectum multiply uncontrolled

Most colorectal or colon cancer starts to develop from small precancerous polyps that grow slowly, and when they become larger, they show the symptoms of cancer.

Based on the research, certain risk factors are related to the disease, like diet, tobacco smoking, heavy alcohol use, and hereditary cancer syndromes work as high-risk factors for this disease. 

What are the symptoms of colon cancer?

In most cases, Colon cancer does not show any symptoms in the earlier stage. When the disease becomes larger, the symptoms will be noticeable. But in some cases, the following symptoms can be noticed in the earlier stage. 

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Loss of appetite
  • The frequent feeling of bowel movement
  • Anaemia due to intestinal bleeding 
  • Unexpected weight loss

Some colorectal cancer does not show any symptoms; we should focus on regular screening of the colon through colonoscopy. But if you have some common signs, we will see that indicate colon cancer.

Bowel habits: As symptoms of colon cancer, we will see some changes in bowel habits such as constipation, diarrhoea, narrowing of stools and incomplete evacuation etc. 

Blood o or in the stool: This is the most significant sign is blood in or on your stool. However, bleeding in stool does not always mean colon cancer because some other disease symptoms also cause bleeding. 

Unexplained Anaemia: Anaemia, a shortage of Red blood cells, is a symptom of colon cancer. Because of Anaemic, you also face breathing shortage problems which lead to tiredness, sluggishness and you will not feel better after rest. All these are the significant symptoms of colon cancer. 

Colon cancer treatment options in India

The treatment of colon cancer in India depends on factors such as which part of the colon is affected or how much cancer spreads. Usually, the primary stage of cancer can be treated through colon surgery, but if it spreads widely, then you have to apply various modern colon cancer treatments that are as follows.

1. Surgery:

This is the primary stage of the treatment process and depends on how early the cancer is detected. Through surgery, doctors remove cancer-affected parts of the colon, but a difficult surgery approach is needed in major conditions.  

2. Chemotherapy:

Some drugs are used to treat colon cancer through this process. Mainly chemotherapy is suggested after surgery when it can have spread to the lymph, and it is used to shrink the size of the tumour. 

3. Radiation therapy:

X-rays and proton beams are used to destroy cancer cells. This method is applied before surgery to reduce the growth of cancerous cells. 

4. Immunotherapy:

Some medical drugs are used to increase the immunity to combat cancer. Immunotherapy disrupts cancer cells’ work process that prevents the cells of the immune system from recognizing the cancer cells.

5. Targeted drug therapy

is used to die cancer cells by blocking unique abnormalities. 

Surgery for colon cancer in India?

Through surgery, doctors mainly remove cancer affected parts of the colon. These are as follows.

1. Endoscopic mucosal resection:

This is a technique of colonoscopy in which special tools are used to remove the bigger polyps and a small amount of the colon’s inner lining.

2. Robotic surgery: In this method, colon resection, rectal resection, and rectopexy with improved 3D visualization are included to combat cancer.

3. Polypectomy: If the cancer is small and fully contained within a polyp and can be completely removed by colonoscopy.

4. Bowel diversion surgery: when the large intestine is removed, this method enables to leave the stool safely. Bowel diversion surgery diverts the intestine to where a stoma is made.

What is colon cancer treatment cost in India?

Colon cancer treatment costs in India start from 2.5-4.2 lacs. It usually affects old age people but also can occur at any age. But the variation in treatment costs depends on the types of the treatment process and the intensity of the disease.


Estimated cost
Colonoscopy 1,40000-1,75000
radiation therapy1,68000-4,50000
Targated therapy2,1000-2,80000
Immuno therapy5,60000-6,65000

The success rate of colon cancer treatment in India

With modern technology, tumour board, multimodality treatment and advanced skilled doctors, the success rate of survival in India is appreciable. Based on the 5 years survival rate in India is about 80-95%, especially in the initial stages.

Chemotherapy increases the survival rates in critical stages. The best oncologists and colon specialists work hard to increase the survival rates to reduce the effects of colon cancer.


What is Stomach Cancer?

What is Stomach Cancer?


The stomach, positioned in the upper belly, is responsible for food digestion. Food is pushed down the oesophagus, a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach when it is eaten. 

Stomach cancer is a type of cancer that develops from the cells that line the stomach. Like all malignant cells, these cells develop abnormally quickly. There are frequently no symptoms early in the course of the disease. Indigestion, nausea, vomiting, and a feeling of being full sooner than usual may develop as the condition advances. 

What Is Stomach Cancer?

A malignancy or unrestrained growth of abnormal tissue of the stomach lining is known as gastric cancer or stomach cancer. This cancer is frequently caused by infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. 

The most frequent kind of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma. Lymphomas, carcinoid tumours, and gastrointestinal stromal tumours are some of the other types of cancer. Unfortunately, because stomach cancer has few early symptoms and indicators, it is frequently discovered late in its progression. 

Stomach cancer or  Gastric cancer can appear anywhere in the stomach and spread to other organs. Loss of appetite and weight loss are common stomach cancer symptoms. A biopsy of stomach tissue is taken during an endoscopy to diagnose gastric cancer.

What Causes Stomach Cancer?

The stomach is in charge of digesting food and then transporting nutrients to the rest of your digestive system, specifically the small and large intestines. A tumour forms when usually healthy cells in the upper digestive system get malignant and expand out of control. 

This is a slow procedure. Stomach cancer usually takes a long time to grow. It is the sixth most frequent cancer globally and the third most common cause of cancer-related fatalities. The cells that grow in the mucosa give rise to cancer of this type. It’s the mucus-producing lining of the stomach. 

Helicobacter pylori, often known as H. pylori, is a common bacterium that causes ulcers and stomach inflammation. It’s also one of the primary causes of stomach cancer. Doctors understand that stomach cancer starts when a cell’s DNA in the stomach changes. 

The instructions that inform a cell what to do are stored in the DNA of that cell. When healthy cells die, the alterations tell the cell to grow quickly and live on. As the cells build up, they form a tumour that can invade and destroy healthy tissue. Cells can break off and spread to other parts of the body over time.

What Are the Symptoms of Stomach Cancer?

Symptoms of early-stage stomach cancer or gastric cancer are uncommon. Most stomach cancers aren’t discovered until they’ve grown rather large or moved outside the stomach in nations where screening for stomach cancer isn’t routine.

When stomach cancer manifests itself, the following signs and symptoms may occur:

  • Appetite problems
  • Loss of weight (without trying)
  • Abdominal (belly) discomfort
  • Uncertain abdominal pain, generally above the navel
  • Feeling stuffed with only a modest dinner
  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting, whether bloody or not
  • Abdominal swelling or fluid accumulation
  • Stool with blood

As a result of having too few red blood cells, you may feel tired or weak (anaemia). If cancer has gone to the liver, the skin and eyes will turn yellow (jaundice). A viral infection or an ulcer are more likely causes of these symptoms than stomach cancer. 

How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

Exams and tests will be required if stomach cancer is suspected. Other tests may be required to understand more about cancer if it is discovered.

  • Upper endoscopy: This is also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD), the most common test performed if your doctor suspects you have stomach cancer. This allows the doctor to examine the inside lining of your oesophagus, stomach, and small intestine. Biopsy samples can be taken using equipment passed through the endoscope if abnormal regions are discovered. 
  • Biopsy: If an abnormal-looking spot is seen during an endoscopy or imaging test, your doctor may suspect cancer, but a biopsy is the only way to know. Instruments can be passed down the endoscope to biopsy any abnormal regions in the stomach lining seen during the endoscopy. Some stomach cancers begin deep within the stomach wall, making endoscopy difficult to sample.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests provide images of the inside of your body by using x-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, or radioactive chemicals. Imaging tests are performed for several reasons, including:
    • To assist in determining whether a suspicious spot is cancerous.
    • To assist in determining whether or not treatment was successful.
  • Computed Tomography scan: C.T. scans employ x-rays to provide detailed cross-sectional images of the body’s soft tissues. C.T. scans can reveal the stomach in detail and often confirm the presence of cancer. C.T. scans can also reveal other areas of the body where stomach cancer has spread, such as the liver and lymph nodes nearby. This can aid in determining cancer’s extent and whether surgery is a viable therapeutic option.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging: An MRI, like a C.T. scan, can produce detailed images of the body’s soft tissues. Instead of x-rays, MRIs employ radio waves and powerful magnets. This test isn’t as common as C.T. scans for detecting stomach cancer, but it can be useful in some cases, such as screening for liver tumours.

What Are Stomach Cancer Treatments?

Surgery, radiation treatment, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy can all treat stomach cancer. The following are descriptions of the most prevalent therapy methods for stomach cancer. Treatment for symptoms and side effects may be part of your cancer treatment plan.

    • Surgery: The tumour and some surrounding healthy tissue are removed during surgery. The surgery utilised is determined by the cancer’s stage. When the cancer is still in its early stages, surgery is utilised to remove the cancerous portion of the stomach and adjacent lymph nodes. A subtotal or partial gastrectomy is the name for this procedure. Surgery and chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy may be done if cancer has progressed to the outer stomach wall with or without lymph node involvement.
    • Radiation therapy: High-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells is known as radiation therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed before or after surgery to reduce the tumour or kill any leftover cancer cells.
    • Chemotherapy uses medications to kill cancer cells by preventing them from growing, dividing, or increasing. Chemotherapy can be used to kill cancer cells that remain after surgery, halt tumour development, or relieve cancer symptoms. There is currently no universally accepted chemotherapeutic treatment protocol.
    • Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that focuses on the genes, proteins, or tissue environment that contribute to cancer growth and survival. This sort of treatment stops cancer cells from spreading and causing damage to healthy cells.
    • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy, also known as biological therapy, is used to strengthen the body’s natural defences against cancer. It improves, targets, or restores immune system function using materials created by the body or in a laboratory.

What is the survival rate in stomach cancer?

The 5-year survival rate is 70% if the cancer is detected and treated before it spreads outside the stomach. The 5-year survival rate is 32 % if cancer has spread to other tissues or organs and regional lymph nodes.

How Can I Prevent Stomach Cancer?

These actions will lower your chance of stomach cancer:

  • Limit your alcohol intake and avoid using cigarette products.
  • Smoked and pickled meals, as well as salted meats and fish, should be avoided.
  • Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain bread, cereals, pasta, and rice.
  • Keep a healthy weight.

 Risk factors: The following factors raise the risk of stomach cancer.

  • GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • Obesity
  • Gastric cancer in the family
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Stomach irritation over time (gastritis)
  • Stomach polyps from smoking

When to see a doctor

If you detect a change that isn’t usual for you or if you have any of the probable cancer signs and symptoms, you should consult your doctor. If you’re unsure what the symptom is, don’t wait to visit them. If you don’t schedule an appointment, your anxiety is unlikely to go away. It’s possible that the symptom isn’t related to cancer.

If it is, the sooner it is detected, the better the chances of successful therapy. What you tell your doctor is kept private. Doctors are used to talking about personal issues and will try to put you at ease.


1. Can Stomach Cancer Go Undetected?

As cancer grows, the symptoms that arise can be mistaken for common gastrointestinal problems. As a result, stomach cancer can lie unnoticed for years until the symptoms grow severe enough to merit testing.

2. Stomach Cancer Curable if Caught Early?

Stomach cancer, like all cancers, is best treated early on before it spreads to other parts of the body.

3. How Long Is Recovery After Stomach Cancer Surgery?

The length of your stay in the hospital is determined by the type of stomach surgery you underwent, your age, and your overall health. You’ll probably be in the hospital for 3–10 days, but a gastrectomy can take 3–6 months to recover from fully.


What Are the Types of Stomach Cancer?

What Are the Types of Stomach Cancer?


Cancer is a scary word for anyone to hear. But when you’re told that you have cancer in your stomach, it can be especially terrifying. This post will outline the different types of stomach cancer, so that patients can be better informed about their diagnosis.

We’ll also discuss various treatment options and prognoses for each type of stomach cancer. We hope that this information will help patients feel empowered and equipped to fight this disease.

Types of Stomach Cancers

There are two main types of stomach cancer: adenocarcinoma and lymphoma.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for about 95% of all cases.

This type of cancer begins in the cells lining the inside of the stomach. Lymphoma is a less common type of stomach cancer, but it tends to be more aggressive than adenocarcinoma. Lymphoma starts in the immune cells that are found in the lining of the stomach.

Both adenocarcinoma and lymphoma can be further classified based on their location in the stomach. For example, gastric cancer can occur in any part of the stomach. However, most gastric cancers starting the upper part of the stomach, near the opening to the esophagus.

This type of cancer is called an antral cancer. Another common type of stomach cancer, called a diffuse gastric cancer, starts in the lower part of the stomach and spreads throughout the entire organ.

While adenocarcinoma and lymphoma are the two main types of stomach cancer, there are other, less common types as well. For instance, stromal tumors make up about 5% of all stomach cancers. These tumors arise from the connective tissue in the stomach. Carcinoid tumors are another type of stomach cancer that is relatively rare. These tumors form in the hormone-producing cells of the stomach.

Treatment for stomach cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. Surgery is the most common treatment for all types of stomach cancer. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used, especially in cases of advanced cancer.

The prognosis also varies depending on the type of stomach cancer. For instance, adenocarcinoma tends to have a better prognosis than lymphoma.

Causes of stomach cancer

There are a number of different factors that can increase your risk of developing stomach cancer. For instance, infection with the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria is a common cause of stomach cancer.

This infection is often acquired during childhood and can lead to inflammation of the stomach lining, which increases the risk of cancer. Other risk factors for stomach cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene or asbestos
  • A family history of stomach cancer
  • Certain medical conditions, such as pernicious anemia or type A blood
  • Chronic gastritis

-Dietary factors, such as a diet high in smoked meats or pickled vegetables

If you are concerned about your risk of stomach cancer, talk to your doctor. They can help you assess your risk and take steps to reduce it.

Prevention of stomach cancer

There are a number of different ways that you can reduce your risk of developing stomach cancer. First, it’s important to eat a healthy diet that is low in smoked meats and pickled vegetables. You should also try to avoid exposure to harmful chemicals, such as benzene or asbestos.

If you smoke, quitting is the best way to reduce your risk of stomach cancer. Finally, if you have a family history of the disease, you may want to talk to your doctor about genetic testing. This can help you determine if you are at increased risk for developing the disease

If you have been diagnosed with stomach cancer or concerned about your risk of stomach cancer, it’s important to talk to your doctor about your treatment options.

Be sure to ask about the side effects of each treatment so that you can make an informed decision about your care. Remember, you are not alone in this fight. There are many resources available to help you through this difficult time.


How Is Stomach Cancer Detected?

How Is Stomach Cancer Detected?


Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, develops when normal cells in the stomach become aberrant and grow out of control. Cancerous or benign tumours exist. A malignant tumour can grow and spread throughout the body.

The term “benign tumour” refers to a growth that will not spread. The formation of malignant cells in the stomach lining is gastric cancer. Gastric cancer risk varies depending on age, diet, and stomach illness.

Indigestion and stomach discomfort or pain are both symptoms of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a serious health problem that affects people worldwide. Surgery to remove stomach cancer is frequently required for treatment. Before and after surgery, further therapies may be indicated.

What Is Stomach Cancer?

Stomach cancer is caused by cancer cells growing in the stomach’s inner lining. These cells can develop into malignant cells. The condition is also known as stomach cancer and progresses slowly over time. People in their late 60s and 80s are most likely to get stomach cancer. 

In about 95% of all cases, almost all stomach cancers begin in the stomach’s glandular tissue. The tumour could either expand along the stomach wall or grow through it, shedding cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Cancer can spread to other organs once it leaves the stomach.

The incidence of instances of stomach cancer has been progressively falling over the last few decades, presumably due to improved access to fresh food without preservatives or bacterial contamination due to the extensive use of refrigeration.

Types of stomach cancer

Stomach cancer comes in a variety of types. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent type of stomach cancer, accounting for 90 to 95 per cent of cases. Primary gastric lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour and neuroendocrine cancers of the stomach are some of the other forms. Here is an overview of different stomach cancers.

  • Adenocarcinomas: Adenocarcinomas account for most stomach cancers, 90% to 95%. The gland cells in the stomach’s innermost lining give rise to these malignancies (the mucosa). This type of cancer is addressed in the information on the following pages about stomach cancer.

Adenocarcinomas of the stomach are divided into two types:

The prognosis for the intestinal type is slightly better outlook. Certain gene modifications in cancer cells are more likely, allowing for tailored medication therapy treatment.

The diffuse form is more likely to spread quickly. It’s less prevalent than intestinal cancer, yet it’s also more difficult to treat.

  •  Linitis Plastica: According to a study published in the Annals of Surgical Oncology, linitis plastic is a rare subtype of stomach adenocarcinoma that accounts for 7% to 14% of cases. The cancer cells in this form spread throughout the stomach, stiffening the tissues. Linitis Plastica cancer has frequently progressed to lymph nodes by the time it is discovered. 

Other types of cancer that can start in the stomach

  • Lymphomas: Lymphomas are malignancies of the immune system that can begin anywhere lymph tissues exist, including the stomach.MALT lymphoma is a kind of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that most commonly affects the stomach. Cancer begins in the stomach’s lymph tissue.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: A bacterial infection, particularly one caused by helicobacter pylori or viral infection, is the most common cause of MALT lymphoma of the stomach. This cancer grows slowly and is usually diagnosed early.

Tumours can appear anywhere in the digestive tract, but the stomach accounts for 60 to 70% of all cases. Stomach GISTs can lead to:

    • Pain in the abdomen
    • The stomach has a mass or swelling.
    • Vomiting
    • Irritable bowel syndrome
    • The unexplained weight reduction
  • Carcinoid tumours: These tumours usually begin in the stomach’s hormone-producing cells. These tumours seldom spread to other organs and account for only around 3% of stomach cancer cases.

ECL-cell carcinoids of type I and II seldom spread to other body regions and may cause no symptoms.

ECL-cell carcinoids of type III are more aggressive. Carcinoid syndrome is a disorder defined by flushing, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constriction of the bronchial tubes in the lungs, and, in certain cases, heart problems such as valve failure caused by the excess hormone release of carcinoid tumours.

  • Hereditary (familial) diffuse gastric cancer: According to the National Cancer Institute, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer accounts for about 1% to 3% of all stomach cancers. This type of stomach cancer, caused by a hereditary abnormality handed down from parents to children, grows in numerous places of the stomach and spreads fast to other parts of the body. Genetic testing can disclose if someone has a mutation linked to HDGC.

What Causes Stomach Cancer?

A genetic mutation (change) in the stomach cells is the most common cause of stomach cancer. Cancer cells begin to increase in the stomach for unknown reasons. However, they know a few factors that can increase your disease risk. Infection with H. pylori, a common bacteria that causes ulcers, is one of them. Gastritis, a type of long-term anaemia known as pernicious anaemia, and polyps, which are growths in the stomach, can all increase cancer risk.

Other factors that appear to contribute to the risk are:

  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • A salty or smoked food diet
  • Regular consumption of alcohol
  • An ulcer in the stomach requires surgery.
  • Blood Type A
  • An infection with the Epstein-Barr virus
  • Several genes have been identified as being responsible for the development of
  • Working in the coal, metal, wood, or rubber industries is a great way to make money.
  • Asbestos poisoning

Stomach Cancer Risk Factors

Anything that increases your chances of having a disease like cancer is considered a risk factor. The risk factors for various tumours vary. Others are unalterable, such as a person’s age or family background. The following factors raise the risk of stomach cancer:

  • GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • Obesity
  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in salty and smoked foods
  • gastric cancer in the family
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • stomach irritation over time 
  • Stomach polyps from smoking

Can Stomach Cancer Be Prevented?

While there is no surefire way to avoid stomach cancer (also known as gastric cancer), there are steps you may do to reduce your risk. Some types of stomach cancer are more common in people who are overweight or obese; therefore, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce your risk. 

Regular exercise may also reduce your chances of stomach cancer. Apart from the potential implications of stomach cancer risk, maintaining a healthy weight and being active can help you avoid a variety of other malignancies and health issues.

Can Stomach Cancer Be Found Early?

Yes, because there are no warning symptoms in the early stages, stomach cancer can go undiscovered for years. Even though early indicators of stomach cancer are typically unclear, recognising them increases the chances of detecting the disease sooner. 

As cancer grows, the symptoms that arise can be mistaken for normal gastrointestinal problems. As a result, stomach cancer can lie unnoticed for years until the symptoms become alarming enough to require testing.

Signs and Symptoms of Stomach Cancer

The following are some of the signs and symptoms of stomach cancer:

  • Swallowing problems
  • After eating, feeling bloated
  • After consuming tiny amounts of food, feeling full
  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea
  • stomach ache
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Vomiting

Tests for Stomach Cancer

The tests are listed below may be used to identify stomach cancer in addition to a physical examination:

1. Biopsy:

A biopsy is a technique that involves removing a small bit of tissue and examining it under a microscope. Other tests may indicate the presence of cancer, but only a biopsy can provide a definitive answer. 

2. Tumor Molecular Analysis:

Your doctor may suggest that laboratory tests be performed on a tumour sample to identify specific genes, proteins, and other specific components.

3. Endoscopy:

A doctor can see the body with a gastroscope or endoscope. During an endoscopy, the doctor can take a tissue biopsy and examine it for cancer indications.

4. X-ray:

An x-ray uses a small amount of radiation to produce a picture of the structures inside the body.

5. Barium Swallow:

A person takes a series of x-rays after swallowing a barium beverage. The oesophagus, stomach, and intestines lining are coated in barium, making tumours and other abnormalities easier to view on an x-ray.

6. CT or CAT scan:

A CT scan uses x-rays from various angles to create images of the inside of the body. A computer combines these images into a detailed, three-dimensional image that displays any anomalies or malignancies. The size of the tumour can be determined via a CT scan. 

Diagnosing stomach cancer:

These procedures used to diagnose stomach cancer include:

1. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer-killing medicine. Before surgery, chemotherapy can help shrink cancer and make it easier to remove.

2. Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy can be used before surgery to reduce stomach cancer and make it easier to remove. After surgery, radiation therapy can eliminate any cancer cells that remain.

3. Personalised medication

Drugs that target specific flaws in cancer cells are known as targeted therapies. Targeted medication treatments can kill cancer cells by blocking these vulnerabilities. 

4. Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a medicine that aids your immune system in the battle against cancer. Because cancer cells develop proteins that make it difficult for immune system cells to detect them as dangerous, your body’s disease-fighting immune system may fail to battle cancer. Interfering with that mechanism is how immunotherapy works.


4 Ovarian Cancer Symptoms You Should Not Ignore

4 Ovarian Cancer Symptoms You Should Not Ignore


Ovarian cancer is sometimes referred to as silent cancer since the ovaries are located deep inside the pelvis, and the earliest signs are typically vague and non-specific. As a result, cancer typically stays unnoticed until it has progressed across the abdomen or other parts of the body. 

In its later stages, survival chances for ovarian cancer collapse when it has spread to distant organs because of the limited efficacy of therapies. Unfortunately, more than 70% of women with ovarian cancer are discovered to have the disease at an advanced stage, which results in a much worse prognosis.

It becomes crucial to pay attention to your body and immediately consult an expert if you notice any symptoms. Let’s talk about symptoms of ovarian cancer.

What is ovarian cancer?

When cells in your body grow abnormally, they can form a mass or a tumor and result in cancer of that organ. For instance, ovarian cancer develops when this abnormal development arises in the ovary.

Every cell has its life cycle, including growth, division, and replacement. On the other hand, cells may occasionally overgrow or stop dying when they should. This aberrant cell development may create issues, most often making a tumor. A tumor may be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

A benign tumor cannot spread throughout the body. Instead, it remains stationary and gradually expands over time. In most cases, benign tumors pose no immediate threat to your health. However, malignant tumors are more aggressive. These spread quickly and may infiltrate other body sections, producing even more difficulties. For example, ovarian cancer occurs when malignant (cancerous) cells form in the ovaries.

Let’s now talk about ovarian cancer causes.


Ovarian cancer has no known cause; however, several risk factors might increase a woman’s risk of acquiring the illness. The following are some of the risk factors:

  • Age: Ovarian cancer is most frequent in women between 50 and 60.
  • Hormone therapy: Estrogen hormone replacement treatment (particularly in significant dosages or for a long time) may raise the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Menstruation onset and menopause: Women who started menstruation at a young age and went through menopause later than typical had a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Inherited gene changes: Ovarian cancer is caused by alterations in your genes that you inherit from your parents in a tiny proportion of cases. For example, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are two genes linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

If you come under any of these risk factors, it is vital to stay aware and look for any abnormal changes in the body. Let’s jump on our main topic; What ovarian cancer symptoms should you not ignore?

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Women may have a better chance of detecting — and treating — the condition early on if they recognize early symptoms of this cancer.

Some of these symptoms include:


Bloating is an unpleasant sense of fullness in the stomach that almost every woman has experienced. While feeling bloated is common, particularly around your monthly cycle, persistent bloating that lasts for up to three weeks is not.

One of the most prevalent early indicators of ovarian cancer is feeling bloated and full all the time. Moreover, bloating followed by abdominal distension might indicate a problem.


Irritable bowel syndrome, ovarian cancer, and stress and anxiety are connected to GI problems. Constipation is a typical GI symptom associated with ovarian cancer.

Any changes in your bowel movements should be noted. For example, acute constipation that is not eased by any therapies, in particular, might be a sign.

Prolonged Pain

One to three weeks of the stomach, pelvic pressure, and lower back pain may signal a problem. However, pain that is uncommon for you doesn’t come and go and can’t be easily attributed to other reasons, is an ovarian cancer sign.

If your discomfort goes away when you relax, your symptoms are stress-related. If you see a change in your pain after changing your food, it’s probably a GI problem.

Sadly, separating ovarian cancer symptoms from GI or stress-related disorders may be challenging. That’s why so many women visit so many specialists.

If you’re experiencing these symptoms and they aren’t going away despite your best efforts, see your physician about the following checks:

  • A GI assessment, which may involve a physical examination and GI testing (e.g., endoscopy, colonoscopy)
  • A pelvic examination
  • Blood Test
  • Ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI

Changes in Bladder Function

While women have urinary difficulties, such as discomfort or urgency when peeing, they usually assume they have a urinary tract infection. But, unfortunately, it is often the case.

However, bladder problems may also indicate a gynecologic or reproductive condition, such as ovarian cancer.

The following are some of the specific urine symptoms related to ovarian cancer:

  • Feeling pressure or pain in the bladder
  • Sudden, urgent need to urinate
  • Frequent urination

It’s an issue if these urine signs are unusual to you and linger for more than a few days. Inform your OB/GYN or primary care physician that you are worried about bladder problems and reproductive system difficulties.

If you notice any such signs or symptoms, do not ignore them. Consult an expert at the earliest and start your diagnosis.

Treatment Options for Ovarian Cancer

Following are the treatment options for ovarian cancer. 

  1. Surgery

Surgical procedures may include:

  • Salpingo-oophorectomy: The fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed during surgery.
  • Hysterectomy: The uterus is surgically removed.
  • Pelvic lymph node dissection: Several lymph nodes in the pelvic are removed.
  • Para-aortic lymphadenectomy: Lymph nodes around the aorta, the heart’s major artery, are removed.
  • Omentectomy: The omentum, a fatty tissue layer that covers organs in the lower gastrointestinal system, is removed.
  • Cytoreduction surgery or debulking: Surgical excision of the whole visible tumor, perhaps including the spleen and gastrointestinal organs.
  • Chemotherapy: Anticancer medications are used to destroy malignant cells. Chemotherapy operates by interfering with cancer cells’ capacity to grow and replicate in most circumstances. 
  • Immunotherapy: This method use medications or vaccinations to enhance the immune system’s natural defenses, allowing cancer cells to be killed. 

B. Radiation therapy:

High-energy X-rays or particles are used to eliminate cancer cells in this kind of cancer therapy.


Ovarian cancer can be severe if it is detected at an advanced stage. It has become a common cancer that affects many women every year.

There is no one test for ovarian cancer, so symptoms should not be overlooked. If you notice any symptoms, book an appointment and consult a cancer specialist.

You can book an appointment with our expert doctor to know more about ovarian cancer.


Is HIPEC Surgery Painful?

Is HIPEC Surgery Painful?


To begin with, HIPEC is an acronym for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. It’s a cancer treatment that involves infusing your belly with warm chemotherapy medicines. Also, you receive a single massive dosage of chemotherapy that is less harmful.

Because the chemicals aren’t put into your bloodstream, they don’t move as much throughout your body as chemotherapy given through an IV.

The chemotherapy medicines are heated to around 106-109 degrees Fahrenheit. Cancer cells cannot withstand heat in the same way that healthy cells do.

The heat also makes it easier for the medications to enter and work better in your cells. Therefore, here’s all you need to know about this surgery.

What is HIPEC surgery?

HIPEC surgery involves injecting high doses of chemotherapy into the abdomen to treat cancer that has progressed beyond the original organ. Traditional chemotherapy can be challenging to treat abdominal malignancies that have progressed to the abdominal cavity lining (peritoneum).

A more successful therapeutic option is HIPEC surgery. It is a two-step method for treating certain types of abdominal malignancies. Cancerous lesions are surgically removed, and then hot chemotherapy chemicals are injected into the abdomen to kill any residual cancerous cells.

Who needs it?

This depends on the location of your cancer and the severity of the sickness or cancer spread. Your doctor will assess whether you are fit for the surgery.

Diseases, fluid build-up, and malignancies in the abdomen can all be treated with HIPEC surgery. HIPEC is used to treat the following cancers:

  • Cancer of the adrenal gland
  • Cancer of the appendix
  • Cancers of the colon and rectal mucosa
  • Gastric cancer (stomach cancer) is a type of cancer that affects the stomach.
  • Cancer of the liver
  • Mesothelioma
  • Ovarian cancer (affects women.)
  • Pancreatic carcinoma 
  • Cancer of the peritoneum


The first step involves staying in the operation room for at least 8 hours. You’ll be under general anaesthesia so that you won’t be conscious during the procedure. The surgeon will begin by removing any obvious tumors. Also, the procedure is known as cytoreductive surgery, or CRS. Further, the surgeon will fill your stomach with a heated liquid containing chemotherapy medications to target any leftover malignancy.

The HIPEC procedure is the next step. After removing all visible tumors and sick tissue from the abdomen, your surgeon will place a catheter with chemotherapy medications, which will be pushed into your abdomen. The catheters are connected to a perfusion machine, which warms the chemotherapy medications and circulates them for one to two hours through your abdomen.

Before closing the incision, your surgeon will drain the residual chemotherapy from the abdomen and clean it with a salt solution. The length of the procedure will depend on how far cancer has gone throughout the abdomen. Surgery to treat advanced-stage cancer may take longer.

Post-surgery precautions

  • You’ll stay in the hospital for another 6-20 days after being released from intensive care to continue your recovery.
  • You’ll spend roughly two days in critical care following surgery. Doctors and other medical professionals will examine you for signs of dehydration and test your electrolytes and blood glucose levels.
  • If your blood sugar level rises too high, you’ll be given insulin to help with wound healing. Antibiotics will almost certainly be prescribed to assist you in avoiding infection. While the surgical wound heals, you’ll be given pain medication, most likely as an epidural.
  • When it comes to eating, you may begin with IV nourishment, but the goal is for you to be able to eat solid foods as soon as possible. This will help you regain regular bowel function more quickly.

Is it painful?

The procedure is painless because of the sedative. On the other hand, Dwell chemotherapy may be unpleasant for patients because it is administered while they are awake. In the case of HIPEC surgery, however, patients can relax and feel at ease. HIPEC surgery could take up to 14 hours to complete.

Which doctor to consult for HIPEC?

Patients should seek the advice of an oncologist, who may be found at any cancer hospital. India is known worldwide for its superior medical facilities and promising HIPEC treatment technologies. India is home to many of the most excellent HIPEC treatment hospitals.
Dr. Sanket Mehta offers comprehensive treatment for HIPEC surgery with the latest medical equipment. Expert Surgical Oncologist in Mumbai with over a decade of experience.


HIPEC surgery delivers high doses of chemotherapy directly to the belly, a location where regular chemotherapy treatments are ineffective. Patients with inoperable or advanced-stage cancer may benefit from this novel surgery, improving long-term outcomes and expanding treatment options.

There are fewer adverse effects in HIPEC because the high concentration of the chemotherapeutic solution cannot cross the peritoneal plasma barrier – that is, it cannot leave the treatment area.

HIPEC has been demonstrated to kill cancer cells that are too small to view with the naked eye.

HIPEC is the most effective strategy for supporting cytoreduction in the treatment of advanced intraabdominal cancer types, according to the findings of studies and therapies during the previous 20 years.

To know more about HIPEC surgery, connect with our experts now!